Racism & Housing

Emerging Structure of Housing Stratification: Visualizing Homeownership by Generational Status.
2020. Brandon Martinez. Socius.

Homeownership is a central aspect of social stratification and is shaped by generational status. Using pooled data from the Current Population Survey, the author shows that generational homeownership inequality changed substantially between 1995 and 2019. Three trends emerge: growth between 1995 and 2005, decline from 2000 to 2015, and postrecession stagnation between 2015 and 2019. Findings show that between 1995 and 2019, homeownership remained stable among the third-plus generation, decreased among the second generation and persons with one native-born parent, and increased among immigrants. As a result of these changes, overall generational homeownership inequality has decreased since 1995. The author contextualizes these findings on the basis of recent research on wealth, discrimination, and immigration.

How Race Matters for Latinx Homeownership.
2020. Brandon Martinez and Alan Aja. Critical Sociology.

In recent decades, the racial wealth gap has widened with extant literature reporting that Black and Latinx families hold fewer assets than white families. One such asset that receives substantial attention because of its wealth-generating principles is homeownership. Whereas intergroup homeownership inequalities are found throughout the literature, less is known about racialized inequality within groups. Latinxs provide a novel case for exploring how racialized homeownership inequality is structured within an ethnic group. Using data from the American Community Survey, we examine the odds of homeownership and predicted logged home values among Latinxs. We find that the association between race and housing outcomes varies substantially across Latinx groups. Drawing from theories of Latinx racial identity and the future of racial structures, we discuss the implications of our findings for understanding racial inequality among Latinx groups.

The Case of Cubans: Racial Inequality in Homeownership and Home Values.
2020. Brandon Martinez. Sociological Forum.

Prior research finds that human capital may explain racial housing inequality, while others note the historical role that race played in creating unequal housing conditions. This study uses the case of Cubans in the U.S. to examine whether human capital explains Black-White housing inequalities, or if they are a result of nativity/cohort differences – a proxy for the federal policies that supported Cubans’ economic and social incorporation. Using pooled data from the American Community Survey, I examine how human capital characteristics and nativity/migration cohorts shape odds of homeownership and predicted home values among Cubans. Extended analyses using decomposition methods find that although human capital characteristics are important, they play a smaller role in explaining Black-White differences in homeownership and home values. Indicative of the changing structure of racial stratification in the U.S., results reveal substantial inequality among the oldest of Cuban immigrants and U.S.-born Cubans, despite a trend toward declining inequality among recent arrivals. Supported by the literature of systemic racism, the case of Cubans shows how human capital explanations do not sufficiently explain racial housing inequalities and how the future of racial stratification is one of inter- and intra-ethnic group inequality. 

Racial Inequality in the Criminal Justice System

Time, Money, and Punishment: Institutional Racial-Ethnic Inequalities in Pretrial Detention and Case Outcomes
2019. Brandon Martinez, Nick Petersen, and Marisa Omori. Crime & Delinquency

While prior research finds that pretrial detention has downstream consequences for racial inequalities in conviction and sentencing, it is often conceptualized as a discrete event within the criminal justice system. This study instead argues that pretrial detention operates as a racial-ethnic stratification process across time. We assess whether temporal and monetary dimensions of pretrial produce and reinforce racial-ethnic disparities in pretrial and subsequent case outcomes. Results indicate that time and money significantly stratify defendants by race and ethnicity, where bond amounts increase time detained, and that time detained in turn reinforces racial inequalities in conviction and incarceration. Indicative of cumulative understandings of inequality, our study shows how time and money in pretrial detention perpetuate inequalities in the criminal justice system. Article summary via London School of Economics US American Policy Blog: How Pretrial Detention Time Reinforces Racial Inequalities

Unequal Treatment: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Miami-Dade Criminal Justice
2018. Nick Petersen, Marisa Omori, Roberto Cancio, Oshea Johnson, Rachel Lautenschlager, and Brandon Martinez.

Our report, Unequal Treatment: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Miami-Dade Criminal Justice, demonstrates that race and ethnicity shape Miami-Dade County’s criminal justice system. Unequal Treatment is the most comprehensive study of its kind looking at recent criminal justice data in Miami-Dade County. The report was a joint effort of the ACLU of Florida and its Greater Miami Chapter, and is authored by sociologists and criminologists from the University of Miami.

Immigration and Urbanization

They Are Not All the Same: Immigrant Enterprises, Transnationalism, and Development
2019. Alejandro Portes & Brandon P. Martinez. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

The literature on immigrant entrepreneurship in the advanced countries tends to paint these initiatives in homogeneous colors. A debate lingers as well on the economic returns to self-employment by immigrant and ethnic groups. We present recent data demonstrating again the significant payoff to autonomous enterprise among all ethnic groups, but also the major differences in such returns among them. This provides the basis for a typology of immigrant enterprises and an analysis of their causes and potential effects for the development of sending nations. Human capital, social capital, and modes of incorporation are the principal determinants of types of immigrant enterprises in host nations. The stance of home country states determines the development potential of high-tech immigrant enterprises. Data and examples supporting these conclusions are presented and their theoretical and practical implications discussed.